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  County Treasurers and
Public Trustees

TITLE 39

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Valuation and Taxation

ARTICLE 11

Sale of Tax Liens

39-11-100.3. Definitions. 

            As used in this article, unless the context otherwise requires:

(1) "Date of sale" means the date on which a public auction begins.

(2) "Electronic funds transfer" means a transfer of funds initiated by using an electronic terminal, telephonic instrument, or computer or magnetic tape to order or authorize a financial institution to credit or debit an account. "Electronic funds transfer" does not include a transaction originated by check, draft, or similar paper instrument.

(3) "Negotiable paper" means a bank check, draft, express or post office money order, or cashier's checks approved by the treasurer.

(4) "Public auction" means the sale of lands or town lots under this article at a venue or through a medium that allows members of the public to bid and purchase the lands or town lots.

39-11-101. Notice to delinquent owner. 

           The treasurer shall make a list of all lands and town lots the tax liens on which are subject to sale, describing such land and town lots as the same are described on the tax roll. Except as otherwise provided in section 39-2-117 (1) (a), no later than September 1 of each year, the treasurer shall send a notice by mail, at the person's last-known address, to each person by whom taxes for the previous year are known to be due and unpaid. The notice shall indicate the amount of the person's delinquency and state that if the amount of the delinquency is not paid by the date specified in the notice, which shall not be less than fifteen days from the date of mailing of the notice, the treasurer will advertise and sell a tax lien on the person's property on the date specified in the notice at public auction for the delinquent taxes, interest, and applicable fees. If such list is not made until after September 1, the sale held thereunder shall not be void by reason thereof.

39-11-102. Treasurer to publish and post notice. 

            (1) The treasurer shall cause the notice described in subsection (2) of this section to be published in the newspaper selected pursuant to section 39-11-105, the first publication being at least four weeks before the date of sale, and shall post a written or printed notice in a conspicuous place in the office of the treasurer for not less than four weeks before the date of sale. If there is no newspaper published in the county, a like notice shall be given by posting one written or printed notice for the above length of time on or near the outer door of the treasurer's office. When publication is made in a weekly newspaper, the notice shall be published in three successive weekly issues. When publication is made in a daily newspaper, the notice shall be published only three times, once each week, on the same day of the week.

(2) The notice of sale at public auction shall contain:

(a) A description of the lands and town lots on which the tax liens are subject to sale;

(b) The date, time, and place of the tax lien sale, including the electronic address if the public auction is conducted by means of the internet or other electronic medium;

(c) The location of computer workstations that are available to the public and information about how to obtain instructions on accessing the public auction and submitting bids if the public auction is conducted by means of the internet or other electronic medium; and

(d) If the public auction is conducted by means of the internet or other electronic medium, a statement that the bidding rules for the public auction will be posted on the internet or other electronic medium used to conduct the public auction at least two weeks before the date of sale.

39-11-103.  Treasurer to make affidavit of posting. 

            The treasurer shall also make, or cause to be made, an affidavit showing the posting of such list and notice, all of which affidavits shall be deposited by the treasurer with the county clerk and recorder to be filed and entered by the treasurer  in the reception book or other permanent record of said office and there carefully preserved. 

39-11-104.  Publisher's affidavit - form. 

            (1)  Every publisher or printer who publishes such list and notice, immediately after the last publication thereof, shall transmit to the treasurer of the proper county an affidavit of such publication made by such publisher, printer, or some other person to whom the fact of publication is known, and no publisher or printer shall be paid for such publication if he fails to transmit such affidavit within fourteen days after the last publication. 

            (2)  Such affidavit shall be substantially in the following form: 

            "I,..................., publisher (or printer) of the ..................., a .................... newspaper, printed and published in the county of ............... and state of Colorado, do hereby certify that the foregoing notice and list were published in said newspaper, once in each week, for ..... successive weeks, the last of which publications was made prior to the .............. day of .................., A.D. 19..., and that copies of each number of said paper in which said notice and list were published were delivered by carriers or transmitted by mail to each of the subscribers of said paper, according to the accustomed mode of business in this office. 

                                                                                                      .....................................................,

                                                                                                     Publisher (or Printer) of the..............

STATE OF COLORADO       )
                                                )  ss. 
County of ........................        )

The above certificate of publication was subscribed and sworn to before me by the above named ..............., who is personally known to me to be the identical person described in the above certificate, on the ............... day of ................., A.D. 19.... . 

                                                                                                                    ........................................

(SEAL)"           

39-11-105.  Selection of newspaper publishing notice. 

            It is the duty of the board of county commissioners of each county to select a newspaper of general circulation published or having general circulation in said county, in which the treasurer shall publish the delinquent tax list of his county, and for such service the board shall allow payment not exceeding the rate as provided by law. 

39-11-106. Advertising and auction fees. 

            (1) To the amount of delinquent taxes there shall be added a fee to cover the cost of advertising, as provided in section 30-1-102, C.R.S. If the public auction is conducted by means of the internet or other electronic medium, the treasurer may add a fee to cover the cost of conducting the public auction.

(2) The treasurer of each county shall deliver his list of all lots or tracts of land for which tax liens are to be advertised for sale to the publisher or printer at least ten days before the date of the first publication.

39-11-107.  Erroneous assessments - abatement. 

            It is the duty of the treasurer of each county, before making sale of tax liens on any lots or land for unpaid taxes, to carefully examine and compare the delinquent list with the assessment roll and block books in his office, and to omit from such sale the tax liens on all lots and lands doubly or erroneously assessed, insofar as he is able to ascertain the same, and to make an itemized report to the board of county commissioners of his county showing such double or erroneous assessment.  The board of county commissioners, on receipt of such itemized report, by resolution to be entered in its proceedings, shall abate the taxes levied upon such double or erroneous assessments. 

39-11-108. Manner of conducting public auction - definitions. 

            (1) On the day designated in the notice of sale, the treasurer shall commence the public auction of the tax liens on those lands and town lots on which the taxes, interest, and fees have not been paid and shall continue the same from day to day, Saturdays and Sundays excepted, until the tax liens on each parcel are sold. Where two or more lots or tracts of land are valued and assessed as one parcel, the treasurer shall sell a single tax lien on such land or tract. The public auction shall be held at the treasurer's office or at another location in the county designated by the treasurer, and all lands and town lots offered at the public auction on the same date of sale shall be offered for public auction at the same location; except that the public auction may be conducted by means of the internet or other electronic medium.

(2) A public auction conducted by means of the internet or other electronic medium to sell lands and town lots under this article shall allow members of the public to submit bids by computer and permit the treasurer to accept bids for as long as the treasurer deems necessary. The county and its employees acting in their official capacity in preparing, conducting, and executing a sale of lands and town lots under this article are not liable for the failure of a device that prevents a person from participating in a sale under this article. As used in this subsection (2), "device" includes, but is not limited to, computer hardware, a computer network, a computer software application, and an internet website.

(3) If there is no bid for any tax lien offered, the offering of such tax lien shall remain open until all the tax liens are offered for sale and the sale is ended or until the treasurer is satisfied that no more sales can be effected, whereupon it is the treasurer's duty to strike off to the county, city, town, or city and county the tax liens on those lands and town lots remaining unsold, for the amount of such taxes, delinquent interest, and fees thereon. When the treasurer strikes off a tax lien on any tract of land or town lot, the treasurer shall issue to the county, city, town, or city and county a certificate of purchase. No taxes levied against any lands for which a county has purchased a tax lien under the provisions of this section shall be payable until the same have been derived by the county from the sale of a tax lien on such lands or from the redemption of such lands.

39-11-109. Time of public auction. 

            The public auction of tax liens on lands upon which taxes remain delinquent shall commence on or before the second Monday in December of each year.

39-11-110. When public auction can be held. 

            If, from any cause, the tax lien on real property cannot be duly advertised and offered for sale at public auction on or before the second Monday of December, it is the duty of the treasurer to hold the public auction on any subsequent day in which it can be held, allowing time for the publication of notice as provided in section 39-11-102.

39-11-111. Method of payment. 

            When the treasurer sells any tax lien on any lands or lots for delinquent taxes, the treasurer may accept payment of the purchase price in the form of cash, negotiable paper, or electronic funds transfer, subject to the treasurer's bidding rules.

39-11-112.  Erroneous name or assessment in wrong county - effect. 

            (1) When tax liens on any lands or town lots are offered for sale for any delinquent taxes, it shall not be necessary to sell the same as the property of any person.  No sale of any tax lien on any land or town lots for delinquent taxes shall be considered invalid because charged on the roll in any other name than that of the rightful owner, or charged as unknown; but the tax lien and such land or lots in other respects shall be sufficiently described on the tax roll to identify the same, and the taxes for such land or lots shall be due and unpaid at the time of such sale. 

            (2)  When any land lying in one county is erroneously taxed and a tax lien on such land is sold for delinquent taxes in another county, the county so erroneously taxing and selling a tax lien on such land for delinquent taxes shall be liable to the owner of such land for any expense or damage caused to such owner by such erroneous sale. 

 39-11-113.  Abbreviations, letters, and figures may be used. 

            In all advertisements for the sale of tax liens on real property for delinquent taxes and in entries required to be made by the assessor, county clerk and recorder, treasurer, or other officers in lists, books, rolls, certificates, receipts, deeds, or notices, letters, figures, and abbreviations may be used to denote townships, ranges, sections, parts of sections, lots, blocks, dates and amounts of taxes, delinquent interest, and costs. 

39-11-114.  Record of sales of tax liens on real estate and mobile homes. 

            (1)  The treasurer shall make a correct record of all sales of tax liens on real estate for delinquent taxes in a well-bound book or other permanent record to be kept by the treasurer for that purpose.  Said book shall contain: 

            (a)  The date of sale; 

            (b)  The description of each tract of land or town lot for which a tax lien is sold; 

            (c)  The name of the owner thereof, if known; 

            (d)  The name of the purchaser; 

            (e)  The total amount of taxes, delinquent interest, and costs at time of sale; 

            (f)  Columns for amount of subsequent taxes paid by the purchaser, and the date of payment; 

            (g)  To whom assigned and the date of assignment; 

            (h)  Name of person redeeming and date of redemption; 

            (i)  Total amount paid for redemption; 

            (j)  Name of person to whom conveyed and date of deed. 

            (2)  The treasurer shall also note in the tax list, opposite the description of the property for which a tax lien is sold, the fact and date of such sale.

            (3) (a)  Upon recordation of the tax sale, the treasurer shall also make a separate list of all mobile homes for which tax liens are sold at the sale and file such list with the department of revenue.  Such list shall include the mobile home's identification number, year and make, parcel number, and all pertinent tax sale information.  For maintaining this recorded tax sale information on mobile homes, the executive director of the department of revenue may impose a fee of five dollars which shall become part of the mobile home tax sale redemption cost. 

            (b) Notwithstanding the amount specified for the fee in this section, the executive director of the department of revenue by rule or as otherwise provided by law may reduce the amount of the fee if necessary pursuant to section 24-75-402 (3), C.R.S., to reduce the uncommited reserves of the fund to which all or any portion of the fee is credited.  After the uncommitted reserves of the fund are sufficiently reduced, the executive director by rule or as otherwise provided by law may increase the amount of the fee as provided in section 24-75-402 (4), C.R.S.

 39-11-115. To whom tax lien shall be sold. 

            (1) When the taxes levied for the preceding year or years on any lands remain unpaid, the tax liens on such lands offered at public auction at the times provided by law shall be sold to the persons who pay therefor the taxes, delinquent interest, and fees then due thereon or who further pay the largest amount in excess of said taxes, delinquent interest, and fees. The excess amount shall be credited to the county general fund. Each tax lien shall be sold for an entire piece of property. The taxes, delinquent interest, and fees shall draw interest at the rates fixed by law, and, when the tax liens on any lands are bid in by the county, city, town, or city and county, the amount for which they are bid in shall draw interest at the same rates. Real property for which a tax lien is sold may be redeemed in the manner provided by law.

(2) In order that the public auction may be conducted in an efficient and equitable manner, the treasurer is hereby granted broad powers to set bidding rules governing the public auction. Such powers shall include, but need not be limited to, the following:

(a) Recognition of buyers in numerical sequence, in rotation, or in the order in which bids are made;

(b) Determining the order in which tax liens are sold, without regard to the order in which they appear in the published notice of sale;

(c) Setting minimum bid increases; and

(d) Setting a minimum total of taxes, delinquent interest, and costs below which competitive bids will not be accepted.

(3) The treasurer may combine and sell as a unit parcels which are contiguous or are contained within one subdivision.

(4) The treasurer shall announce bidding rules at the beginning of the public auction, and the rules announced shall apply to all bidders throughout the public auction. If the public auction is conducted by means of the internet or other electronic medium, the treasurer shall cause the internet bidding rules to be posted on the medium for at least two weeks before the date of sale. The internet bidding rules posted shall apply to all bidders throughout the public auction.

39-11-116. Procedure when purchaser fails to pay. 

            If a person bidding fails to pay the amount due, the treasurer may again offer the tax lien on such land for sale if the public auction has not closed, and, if it has closed, the treasurer may again advertise it specially in the same manner as in the original advertisement and for not less than one week, after which the treasurer may again offer and sell the tax liens on such lands or lots as provided in section 39-11-115; or at the treasurer's option, the treasurer may recover the amount bid by civil action brought in the name of the county in any court of competent jurisdiction. In a public auction conducted by means of the internet or other electronic medium, if a person bidding fails to pay the amount due, the treasurer may offer the tax lien, without additional advertisement, to another bidder, whether or not the public auction has closed; or at the treasurer's option, the treasurer may recover the amount bid by civil action brought in the name of the county in any court of competent jurisdiction. The treasurer may prohibit a person who fails to pay the amount due from bidding on sales under this article for up to five years.

 39-11-117. Certificate of purchase. 

            The treasurer shall prepare, sign, and retain for safekeeping or deliver to the purchaser of a tax lien on any real property sold for the payment of delinquent taxes a certificate of purchase describing the property on which the taxes and fees were paid by the purchaser, as the same was described in the record of sales, and also stating the rate of interest and the total amount of all taxes, delinquent interest, and fees on each tract or lot for which the tax lien was sold, as described in the record of sales, and that payment thereof has been made, with columns for subsequent taxes. For each certificate so delivered, the purchaser shall pay a fee to the treasurer as provided in section 30-1-102, C.R.S.

39-11-118.  Certificate of purchase assignable. 

            Such certificate of purchase shall be assignable by endorsement, and an assignment thereof, when entered upon the record of sales in the offices of the county clerk and recorder and the treasurer, shall vest in the assignee or his legal representative all the right and title of the original purchaser. 

39-11-119.  Subsequent payment by holder. 

            Any person desiring to pay any subsequent taxes on any lands or town lots for which such person holds the tax certificates shall produce such certificates to the treasurer, or, if certificates are retained by the treasurer, the person shall be notified by the treasurer of the amount due.  Upon receipt of payment, the treasurer shall record the amount of the subsequent tax and the date of payment on the permanent record.  The treasurer may receive a fee for such services, as provided in section 30-1-102(1)(j), C.R.S.

 39-11-120.  Presentation of certificates for deed. 

            (1)  At any time after the expiration of the term of three years from the date of the sale of any tax lien on any land, or interest therein or improvements thereon, for delinquent taxes, on demand of the purchaser or lawful holder of the certificate of such tax lien, other than the county wherein such property is situated, and on presentation of such certificate of purchase or properly authenticated order of the board of county commissioners, where the certificate has been lost or wrongfully withheld from the owner, and upon proof of compliance with section 39-11-128, the treasurer shall make out a deed for each such lot, parcel, interest, or improvement for which a tax lien was sold and which remains unredeemed and deliver the same to such purchaser or lawful holder of such certificate or order. 

            (2)  The treasurer shall be entitled to a fee for each such deed made and acknowledged by him and a fee for the acknowledgment thereof, as provided in section 30-1-102, C.R.S. 1973.

            (3)  Whenever any certificate given by the treasurer for a tax lien on any land, interest, or improvement sold for delinquent taxes is lost or wrongfully withheld from the rightful owner thereof and such land, interest, or improvement has not been redeemed, the board of county commissioners may receive evidence of such loss or wrongful detention and, upon satisfactory proof of such fact, may cause a certificate of such proof and finding, properly attested by the county clerk and recorder under the seal of the county, to be delivered to such rightful claimant, and a record thereof shall be duly made by the county clerk and recorder in the recorded proceedings of such board. 

            (4)  Whenever any tax lien on any lot or parcel of land, interest therein, or improvement thereon is bid in by or for the county, city, town, or city and county at any tax sale, and a certificate of purchase is made to such county, city, town, or city and county therefor, the treasurer of such county, city, town, or city and county may sell, assign, and deliver any such certificate to any person who desires to purchase the same upon payment to the treasurer of the amount for which said tax lien was bid in by the county, city, town, or city and county with interest and costs accrued thereon from the date of sale, together with a fee for making such assignment, as provided in section 30-1-102, C.R.S., and the taxes assessed thereon since the date of such sale or, in case of a county, city, town, or city and county, for such sum as the board of county commissioners or other board authorized to perform the duties of a board of county commissioners at any regular or special meeting may decide and authorize by order duly entered in the recorded proceedings of such board.  Whenever any tax lien on any lot or parcel of land, interest therein, or improvement thereon is bid in by or for a city, town, or city and county, as the case may be, such city, town, or city and county shall be entitled to a deed, as provided for purchasers at tax sales. 

39-11-121.  Municipalities, prior sales validated. 

            All sales of such certificates made by any treasurer or ex officio treasurer of any city, town, or city and county, antecedent to or without the passage of any ordinance prescribing the terms of such sales, are hereby approved, affirmed, ratified, and validated as of their respective dates.

39-11-122.  Transfer of certificates by counties. 

            Any county in this state having in its possession or under its control certificates of purchase resulting from the sale of a tax lien on land for the nonpayment of general taxes may assign, sell, or transfer such certificates in such manner, at such times, and on such terms as may be determined by resolution of the board of county commissioners of such county.  Thereafter such county shall execute and deliver such instruments as may be necessary fully to convey all of the right, title, and interest of the county in or to such certificates; but no sale of any certificate of purchase issued upon any real estate upon which taxes in excess of ten thousand dollars are then due shall be valid unless and until the sale of said certificate and the terms of said sale are approved by the administrator after notice of said proposed sale and the terms thereof have been published in at least one issue of a newspaper published regularly in the county where said real estate is located, or if no newspaper is published in said county, then by posting notice of said proposed sale and the terms thereof at the county courthouse and two other public places in said county. 

39-11-123.  Transfer of certificates - irrigation or drainage district taxes. 

            Any county in this state having in its possession or under its control certificates of purchase resulting from the sale of a tax lien on land for the nonpayment of irrigation or drainage district taxes or assessments, by agreement with the board of directors of the district involved, may assign, sell, or transfer such certificates as provided in section 39-11-122. 

 39-11-124.  Counties, prior sales validated. 

            All assignments, sales, or transfers of certificates of purchase by counties made before August 1, 1964, are validated and confirmed. 

39-11-125.  Disposal of certificates by districts. 

            Any irrigation or drainage district in this state having in its possession or under its control certificates of purchase resulting from the sale of a tax lien on land for the nonpayment of irrigation or drainage district taxes or assessments may assign, sell, or transfer such certificates in such manner, at such times, and on such terms as may be determined by resolution adopted by the board of directors of such district, and thereupon such district shall execute and deliver such instruments as may be necessary fully to convey all of its right, title, and interest in or to such certificates. 

39-11-126.  Agreement with county commissioners. 

            Any irrigation or drainage district having in its possession or under its control certificates of purchase resulting from the sale of a tax lien on land for the nonpayment or general taxes may, by agreement with the board of county commissioners of the county in which the land is situated, assign, sell, or transfer such certificates as provided in section 39-11-125. 

39-11-127.  Irrigation or drainage districts, prior sales validated. 

            All assignments, sales, or transfers of certificates of purchase by irrigation or drainage districts made before August 1, 1964, are validated and confirmed. 

39-11-128.  Condition precedent to deed - notice. 

            (1)  Before any purchaser, or assignee of such purchaser, of a tax lien on any land, town or city lot, or mining claim sold for taxes or special assessments due either to the state or any county or incorporated town or city within the same at any sale of tax liens for delinquent taxes levied or assessments authorized by law is entitled to a deed for the land, lot, or claim so purchased, he shall make request upon the treasurer, who shall then comply with the following: 

            (a)  The treasurer shall serve or cause to be served, by personal service or by either registered or certified mail, a notice of such purchase on every person in actual possession or occupancy of such land, lot, or claim, and also on the person in whose name the same was taxed or specially assessed if, upon diligent inquiry, such person can be found in the county or if his residence outside the county is known, and upon all persons having an interest or title of record in or to the same if, upon diligent inquiry, the residence of such persons can be determined, not more than five months nor less than three months before the time of issuance of such deed.  In such notice the treasurer shall state when the applicant or his assignor purchased the tax lien on such land, lot, or claim, in whose name such property was taxed, the description of the land, lot, or claim for which a tax lien was purchased, for what year taxes or specially assessed, and when the time of redemption will expire or when the tax deed shall be issued. 

            (b)  In all cases or instances where the valuation for assessment of the property is five hundred dollars or more, the treasurer shall publish such notice, three times, at intervals of one week, in some daily, weekly, or semiweekly newspaper published in such county, not more than five months nor less than three months before the time at which the tax deed may issue, and he shall send by registered or certified mail a copy of such notice to each person not found to be served whose address is known or can be determined upon diligent inquiry.  If no such newspaper is published in the county, then said notice shall be published in the newspaper that is published in Colorado nearest the county seat of the county in which such land, lot, or claim is situated.  The purchaser or assignee, at the time of making such request for notification on the treasurer, shall pay to the treasurer a fee, as provided in section 30-1-102, C.R.S.   The treasurer shall make and carefully preserve among the files of his office a record of all things done in compliance with this section and shall certify to the same. 

            (2)  When request is made for a tax deed to lands situated wholly within the exterior boundary lines of an irrigation district, the holder of tax sale certificates of purchase to such lands may include in one request or demand for a tax deed all contiguous tracts for which he holds such certificates of purchase.  When all of such lands for which a tax deed is so requested or demanded are unoccupied and no taxes have been paid thereon, or upon any parcel of such lands embraced in such request or demand, for five consecutive years prior to the making of such request or demand, the only notice which the treasurer shall be required to give of the fact that a request or demand for tax deed has been made upon him shall be a notice of publication as provided in this section, in which as many tracts or parcels of land shall be described as are embraced in any one demand or request for deed. 

39-11-129.  Tax deed - issuance, execution, requirements. 

            The words "issue", "issued", "execute", and "executed", when used in this article in connection with a treasurer's deed mean the signing of such a deed by the treasurer, and the delay in the acknowledgment of such a deed or the delivery thereof shall not in any way affect the validity of such deed.  If the notice required in section 39-11-128 for a deed is prepared subsequent to three years after the date of sale of a tax lien for delinquent taxes, it shall not be necessary to make any statement in such notice concerning the time of expiration of the period of redemption.  The treasurer may sign such treasurer's deed at any time after the time specified therefor in such notice if no redemption has then been made, if the signing of such deed is within five months from the service of said notice as required in section 39-11-128.

39-11-130.  Fees included in redemption money. 

            In case the treasurer is compelled to serve or to publish such notices in a newspaper, then before any person who may have a right to redeem such land or lot from such tax sale is permitted to redeem, he shall pay the officer or person who by law is authorized to receive such redemption money the entire amount paid by the applicant for a tax deed for such notices, for abstract and search fees, and for the cost of publishing such notices for the use of the person compelled to pay such charges.  If the property therein described is redeemed before the expiration of the period of redemption named in such notice, the purchaser or his assigns shall recover, in addition to his interest and costs, the cost of such publication and the abstract and search fee. 

39-11-131.  Notice of application for deed. 

            Any number of tracts or parcels of land not exceeding twenty-five, whether contiguous or noncontiguous, or whether claimed or held under one or more titles or ownerships, or whether included in an irrigation district or not so included, and although tax liens for such tracts or parcels of land were separately sold at the tax sale or covered by more than one tax sale certificate, may be included and described in one notice of application for tax deed provided for in section 39-11-128.  Such tracts or parcels, not exceeding twenty-five in number, may also be included and described in a single request for tax deed if such notice and the service thereof and such request are in conformity with section 39-11-128 in other respects.  The name of the person in whose name the land for which a tax lien was sold was taxed or specially assessed for the year for which the tax lien was sold shall be prominently displayed in said notice at or near the beginning thereof and near or with a reference to the number of the tax sale certificate and the description of the land involved, sufficient to enable identification of the land with the name of the person assessed if all certificates so sought to be included in a single notice or request are held by but one person, or jointly held by more than one person. 

39-11-132.  Prior notices or requests containing more than one parcel - validation.  (Repealed)

39-11-133.  Suit to quiet title. 

            Suit to quiet title or to try title may be maintained by the grantee or his successors for all or any one or more of the parcels or tracts acquired under tax deed issued pursuant to said notices and requests, and it shall not be a defense or ground of objection to such action that there is a misjoinder of parties or causes of action; but if a defense to such action or a counterclaim is interposed by a claimant to one or more of said parcels, less than all, then the action shall be tried as between the plaintiff and such claimant, separately from the suit as to other parties and other parcels. 

39-11-134.  Defects in tax deed, effect. 

            Invalidities or defects in or concerning one or more tax deeds, titles, or certificates, or in proceedings relating thereto, shall have no effect on other deeds, titles, or certificates, and redemption from one or more sales shall be without effect as to other sales, titles, or certificates; and in case of redemption from one or more sales, the treasurer shall compute and collect a fair proportion, as nearly as may be, of the costs, fees, and charges required by law to be paid on redemption from tax sales. 

39-11-135.  Form of tax deed. 

            Deeds executed by the treasurer under the provisions of this article shall be substantially in the following form: 

            Know all men by these presents, that, whereas, the following described real property, viz:  (description of property taxed), situated in the county of ................, and state of Colorado, was subject to taxation for the year (or years) A.D. 19......;

            And, whereas, the taxes assessed upon said property for the year (or years) aforesaid remained due and unpaid at the date of the sale hereinafter named; and, whereas, the treasurer of the said county did, on the ............. day of ..............., A.D. 19......, by virtue of the authority vested in him by law, at the sale begun and publicly held on the .......... day of ................., A.D. 19........, expose to public sale at the office of the treasurer, in the county aforesaid, in substantial conformity with the requirements of the statute in such case made and provided, the tax lien on the real property above described for the payment of the taxes, delinquent interest, and costs then due and remaining unpaid on said property; 

            And, whereas, at the time and place aforesaid, ............. of the county of ............... and ............. of ............... bid on the tax lien on all of the above described property the sum of ............ dollars and ......... cents, being the whole amount of taxes, delinquent interest, and costs then due and remaining unpaid upon said property for that year, and the said ........ having offered in his said bid to pay the sum of ...........  dollars and ......... cents in excess of said taxes, delinquent interest, and costs, and the said bid being the largest amount which any person offered to pay in excess of the said taxes, delinquent interest, and costs so due upon said property for that year (or those years), and payment of the said sum having been made by him to the said treasurer, the said tax lien on such pro­perty was stricken off to him at that price; 

            And, whereas, the said ............... did, on the ............ day of ..............., A.D. 19......, duly assign the certificate of the sale of the tax lien on the property as aforesaid, and all his rights, title, and interest in said property, to .................. of the county of ..........., and .............. of ...............;

            And, whereas, at the sale so held as aforesaid by the treasurer, no bids were offered or made by any person or persons for the tax lien on said property, and no person or persons having offered to pay the said taxes, delinquent interest, and costs upon the said property for that year, and the treasurer having become satisfied that no sale of the tax lien on said property could be had, therefore the said tax lien on said property was, by the then treasurer of the said county, stricken off to the said county, and a certificate of sale was duly issued therefor to the said county in accordance with the statute in such case made and provided; 

            And, whereas, the said ............ county, acting by and through its treasurer, and in conformity with the order of the board of county commissioners of the said county, duly entered of record on the ......... day of ............, A.D. 19.... (the said day being one of the days of a regular session of the board of county commissioners of said county), did duly assign the certificate of sale of the tax lien on said property, so issued as aforesaid to said county, and all its rights, title, and interest in said property held by virtue of said sale; 

            And, whereas, the said................ (or ..........) has paid subsequent taxes on said property to the amount of ............... dollars and ......... cents; 

            And, whereas, more than three years have elapsed since the date of the said sale, and the said property has not been redeemed therefrom as provided by law; 

            And, whereas, the said property was valued for assessment for that year at the amount of ...............; 

            And, whereas, all the provisions of the statutes prescribing prerequisites to obtaining tax deeds have been fully complied with, and are now of record, and filed in the office of the treasurer of said county; 

            Now, therefore, I,.................., treasurer of the county aforesaid, for and in consideration of the sum to the treasurer paid as aforesaid, and by virtue of the statute in such case made and provided, have granted, bargained, and sold, and by these presents do grant, bargain, and sell the above and foregoing described real estate unto the said ............... (or..........), his heirs and assigns, forever, subject to all the rights of redemption by minors, or incompetent persons, as provided by law. 

            In witness, whereof, I, ................. treasurer as aforesaid, by virtue of the authority aforesaid, have hereunto set my hand and seal this ............ day of ............, A.D. 19..... 

            ...........................
            (Seal)   Treasurer

STATE OF COLORADO       )
                                                )  ss. 
County of .......................         )

The foregoing instrument was acknowledged before me this ......... day of ............., 19......, by ................. as treasurer of said county. 

Witness my hand and official seal.  (If notary public, state date commission expires). 

(SEAL)                                                                                                         .......................................

                                                                                                                     .......................................

                                                                                                                                      Title of Officer  

39-11-136.  Treasurer to execute deed - effect. 

            (1)  The deed shall be signed by the treasurer in his official capacity and when so signed shall vest in the purchaser all the right, title, interest, and estate of the former owner in and to the land conveyed and also all right, title, interest, and claim of the state and county thereto.  Such deed may be acknowledged in the same manner as other deeds to real estate, and if so acknowledged and recorded in the proper county, shall be prima facie evidence of the following facts: 

            (a)  That the real property conveyed was subject to taxation for the year or years stated in the deed; 

            (b)  That the taxes were not paid at any time before the sale; 

            (c)  That the real property conveyed had not been redeemed from the sale at the date of the deed; 

            (d)  That the property had been listed and assessed at the time and in the manner required by law; 

            (e)  That the taxes were levied according to law; 

            (f)  That the tax lien on said property was advertised for sale in the manner and for the length of time required by law; 

            (g)  That the tax lien on said property was sold for delinquent taxes as stated in the deed; 

            (h)  That the grantee named in the deed was the purchaser, or the heir at law, or the assignee of such purchaser; 

            (i)  That the sale was conducted in the manner required by law; 

            (j)  That the deed was properly signed, acknowledged, and delivered by the treasurer. 

            (2)  All the right, title, interest, and estate conveyed by any such deed executed before August 1, 1964, by the treasurer shall be deemed to have vested in the purchaser at the time such deed was signed by the treasurer in his official capacity. 

            (3) Execution of a deed pursuant to this section shall not affect the existence of any public or private roads, rights-of-way, conservation easements, other easements, or equitable servitudes that run with land and have both benefits and burdens, all as claimed or existing prior to the execution of such deed.

39-11-137.  Validation of acknowledgments of tax deeds. 

            Any tax deed executed by a treasurer pursuant to section 39-11-135, if acknowledged in conformity with the provisions of section 38-35-101, C.R.S. 1973, shall be considered for all purposes as having been properly acknowledged, and such acknowledgment shall carry with it the presumptions provided for by section 38-35-101, C.R.S. 1973. 

39-11-138.  When successor of treasurer shall act. 

            If any treasurer dies, resigns, or is removed from office or his term of office expires after selling any tax liens on any real estate for delinquent taxes and before executing a certificate of deed for the same, his successor in office shall execute such certificate or deed in the same manner that the treasurer making such sale might have done. 

39-11-139.  Posting list of tax sale certificates and tax deeds. 

            No later than the fifteenth day of January of each year, each county treasurer shall deliver to the county clerk and recorder of his county a list showing all tax certificates theretofore issued and held in the name of the county, and a list of all property the title to which has been acquired by the county through issuance of a tax deed.  A copy of such lists shall be posted in a conspicuous place in the courthouse for not less than 30 days. 

39-11-140.  Tax deed recorded - entry. 

            When any tax deed is filed for record, the county clerk and recorder shall also enter the name of the grantee in the proper column of his record of land for which a tax lien was sold for delinquent taxes. 

39-11-141.  Action to determine validity of certificates. 

            Whenever any county or city and county in this state holds tax sale certificates which are believed by the board of county commissioners to be void for irregularity in the assessment of property or sale of a tax lien on property or otherwise, the board of county commissioners of the county or city and county may institute an action in the district court of the county, under the provisions of article 51 of title 13, C.R.S., to have the matter determined as to whether said certificates are void.  Such actions shall be brought in the name of the board of county commissioners.  Any number of such certificates may be included in one action, and the fee owners of record of the tax liens on the lands on account of the sale of which the certificates were issued shall be made defendants in the action.  If any defendant is a nonresident of the state or cannot be found, service of summons may be had upon such defendant in accordance with the provisions of rule 4 of the Colorado rules of civil procedure.  If the court, by its decree, finds and determines that any such certificate is void, then the tax lien on the real estate on account of the sale of which such certificate was issued shall be resold for taxes at the next succeeding sale for delinquent taxes; and if the irregularity on account of which such certificate was held void is in the assessment of the property, then the board of county commissioners shall direct the assessor to reassess the same, and if the delinquent taxes are not thereafter duly paid pursuant to such reassessment, the tax lien on such property shall likewise be sold at the next delinquent tax sale following such reassessment.  No appeal shall lie from the final decree of the court in cases brought under this section.  No costs of the action shall be assessed against any defendant who files a disclaimer or fails to appear in the action. 

39-11-142.  Disposition of certificates held by counties. 

            (1)  In all cases where a tax lien on real estate has been struck off to the county at tax sales and the county has held the certificate of sale for three years or more, the board of county commissioners may apply for and receive a tax deed in like manner as is provided by law in the case of delinquent tax sale certificates held by individuals.  The board of county commissioners, whenever the county becomes entitled to a tax deed, may cause the treasurer to issue, serve, and publish notices, pursuant to law, of application for such tax deed in like manner as in the case of individual certificate holders. 

            (2)  In cases where the county has held the tax certificate for five years or more and such real estate is not located within the limits of any incorporated town or city within the said county, the county may include in one request or demand any or all separate parcels of real estate for which it holds tax sale certificates for sales in any one year, and the board of county commissioners may apply for and receive tax deeds therefor.  In cases where the county has held the tax certificate for eight years and in the opinion of the board of county commissioners such real estate is not used, operated, or maintained wholly or in part in the interest or for the benefit of the public, said board shall apply for and receive a tax deed therefor. 

            (3)  Upon making application in the case of tax certificates held by the counties for five years or more, the treasurer shall not be required to give the notice that a request or demand for tax deed has been made upon him provided for in section 39-11-128.  The treasurer, in lieu of such notice, at least sixty days before the day said tax deed issues, shall give notice by registered or certified mail, addressed to the last known residence of the person in whose name the real estate is assessed for the years during which said taxes have not been paid, that a tax deed has been applied for on the particular described property and that said tax deed will issue on a day certain.  The treasurer shall also post in a public place in the county courthouse, at least sixty days before said deed issues, a notice stating that a deed will be issued to the county on the real estate described in said notice.  Said notice shall contain the name of the person  to whom the property is assessed together with the date said tax deed will issue. 

            (4)  In all cases, the owner of the property shall have the right of redemption of the property as provided by law. 

            (5)  Any tax deed, when issued to the county, shall be duly recorded, but no fee shall be required to be paid therefor.  Thereafter, the board of county commissioners shall list such property for sale and post such list in the county courthouse and, out of the county general fund, may make such essential repairs thereon and pay such premiums for fire insurance as are necessary for the protection and preservation of any improvements on such property.  The board of county commissioners, after a county has acquired such tax deed, in its discretion, may institute and prosecute suits to quiet the title to any such real estate so acquired under such tax deeds. 

            (6)  (a)  In all cases where a tax lien on real property has been struck off to the county at a tax sale and the county has held the certificate of sale for thirty years or more without obtaining a tax deed as provided in this section, then such certificate may be declared void and of no effect. 

            (b)  It is the duty of the treasurer at least once each year to prepare and present, at any regular or special meeting of the board of county commissioners, a list of all tax liens on all real property struck off to the county and all certificates of sale relating thereto, which certificates have been held by the county for thirty years or more without obtaining a deed or being otherwise disposed of under this article. 

            (c)  Upon being presented with such list, the board of county commissioners shall determine that the tax liens were struck off to the county, that such certificates of sale relating thereto have been held by the county for thirty years or more, and that no tax deed has been obtained or applied for as provided in this section.  Upon making such determination, the board of county commissioners may declare that such certificates are void, and an order to that effect shall be duly entered in the recorded proceedings of the board, which order shall direct the treasurer to cancel such certificates of sale. 

            (d)  Upon receipt of an order of the board of county commissioners declaring that any certificates of sale are void, the treasurer shall record said order in his records and shall cancel all such certificates specified in said order. 

            (e)  Any action concerning a determination and declaration by a board of county commissioners made pursuant to this subsection (6) shall be commenced within one year after the date of the board's order, or said action shall be forever barred. 

39-11-143.  Appraisal - county may rent or sell. 

            (1)  Whenever such real estate is conveyed by a treasurer to the county by tax deed under section 39-11-142, the assessor shall annually value the same in the manner prescribed by law for taxable property and shall notify the board of county commissioners of such valuation. 

            (2)  The board of county commissioners has the power to rent, lease, or sell such property so acquired as provided in this section. 

            (3)  Whenever such real estate is leased by the board of county commissioners of such county, it shall be leased for the best cash rental obtainable considering the condition and location of such real estate, in the discretion of the board of county commissioners; but no lease shall be for a period exceeding five years. 

            (4)   (a)  Any such real estate so conveyed to the county may be sold at public sale by the board of county commissioners.  Prior to offering such property for sale, the board of county commissioners shall obtain from the assessor a certificate as to the current actual value and the valuation for assessment of the same.  A notice of such sale shall be posted in a public place in the county courthouse at least thirty days before the date of sale, and such notice of sale shall also be advertised in two issues of a newspaper of general circulation in the county in which the property is situated, said newspaper notices to appear one week apart and within the thirty days as above provided.  Such notice shall reserve the right upon the part of the board of county commissioners to reject any or all bids which are less than the value determined by the assessor.  Said notice shall be substantially in the following form: 

                                                                      "NOTICE

            Public notice is hereby given that the following real property acquired by the County of ................, Colorado, by tax deed, to wit: 

                                                            (description of property)

            will, according to law, be offered at public sale at the county courthouse, .................., Colorado, on the ............ day of .............., 19......, at the hour of ...... to the highest and best bidder.  The board of county commissioners reserves the right to reject any or all bids which are less than the current actual value fixed by the county assessor. 

                                                                                                                        ....................................

                                                                                                                                     County Clerk."   

            (b)  Such real estate may be sold at public sale when and if the board of county commissioners receives a bid for any lots or parcels which in the discretion of the board of county commissioners is a sufficient purchase price.  Such real estate may be sold in such lots or parcels and upon such terms of payment as the board of county commissioners deems acceptable, but no deed shall be issued until the purchaser has made payment in full.  Upon written application of any person, the board of county commissioners shall offer for sale the property requested by such person to be sold; except that no parcel shall be divided for the purpose of such requested sale unless the board of county commissioners specifically permits such division.  The board of county commissioners, in its discretion, may decline and refuse to offer for sale any lots or parcels, as it may determine to be useful or necessary for present or future public projects as defined in section 30-20-301, C.R.S.  1973.  The board of county commissioners may, prior to the sale of any lot or parcel, reserve or grant streets, alleys, or roads or utilities or other easements, public or private, under such terms and conditions as it may deem advisable and may rent or lease any lot or parcel retained for present or future public projects to any person, political subdivision, or quasi-municipal corporation. 

            (5)  Such deeds shall be issued by a commissioner to convey, duly appointed by the board of county commissioners, which commissioner shall act upon the direction of the board of county commissioners, but such deed shall be issued without covenants of warranty. 

            (6)  The foregoing provisions of this section shall not apply to any city and county having a population of more than three hundred thousand.  Sales and leases by such city and county shall be made in compliance with the applicable provisions of its charter or ordinances.  All sales and leases made before August 1, 1964, by such city and county of any real estate acquired by it under tax deeds, whether made or authorized by the board of county commissioners, the mayor of said city and county, or in purported compliance with its charter or ordinances, are deemed valid, and such sales and leases are hereby confirmed.  All actions or proceedings to set aside or question the validity of such sales or leases made before August 1, 1964, by such city and county shall be brought within six months from said date and not thereafter.  This subsection (6) shall not reinstate any such action or proceeding barred by law before August 1, 1964. 

39-11-144.  County lands, prior sales validated. 

            All sales of such real estate made by the board of county commissioners of any county shall be deemed valid, and such sales are hereby confirmed if such sales were made at either public or private sale, whether made by deed issued by the treasurer upon direction of the board of county commissioners or by deed issued by a duly appointed commissioner to convey upon direction of the board of county commissioners. 

39-11-145.  Proceeds of sales. 

            All net proceeds from the sale, lease, or other disposition of such real estate so conveyed to the county by the treasurer shall be paid to the treasurer of such county, and the treasurer shall distribute said proceeds to the various taxing jurisdictions in which such real estate is situated in the same proportion that the ad valorem taxes levied by each taxing jurisdiction in the preceding calendar year bears to the total of all ad valorem taxes levied on such real estate in the preceding calendar year. 

39-11-146.  Lien of special assessment not affected. 

            Nothing in sections 39-11-143 to 39-11-145 shall be construed to affect in any manner or degree whatsoever the lien of any special assessment to which such real estate and the conveyance thereof by the treasurer is subject under law. 

39-11-147.  Treasurer to report payments. 

            A complete report of all payments made to and accepted by the treasurer under sections 39-11-142, 39-11-143, and 39-11-145 shall be made by him, a copy of which shall be sent to the board of county commissioners of his county, to the administrator, and to the controller at the end of each month. 

39-11-148.  Limitations on tax certificates - special improvement liens. 

            (1)  No lien upon real property created by a tax certificate or a certificate of purchase issued by a treasurer on account of any delinquent property taxes or any special assessment of any kind or nature, shall remain a lien thereon for a period longer than fifteen years after the original issuance thereof, except as provided in subsection (3) of this section.  This section shall not apply to any tax certificate of certificate of purchase issued to and held by the county, city, city and county, or district levying such tax or special assessment; except that, in the event of an assignment of such tax certificate or certificate of purchase so issued to and held by such county, city, city and county, or district, the lien of such tax certificate or certificate of purchase shall cease fifteen years after the date of its issuance subject only to the provisions of subsection (3) of this section. 

            (2)  No treasurer's deed shall issue on any tax sale evidenced by tax certificate or certificate of purchase where such tax certificate or certificate of purchase has ceased to be a lien pursuant to the provisions of this section and application for such treasurer's deed is not pending at the time of the expiration of the limitation period provided for in this section.

            (3)  In the event of an assignment of a tax certificate or certificate of purchase held by a county, city, city and county, or district levying such tax wherein such certificate is fifteen years old at the time of assignment or will become fifteen years old within one year from the date of such assignment, the assignee thereof shall be entitled to a tax deed in the manner provided by law if such assignee or other legal holder of such certificate institutes proceedings to procure a tax deed by making a demand upon the treasurer for same, as provided by law, within one year from the date of such assignment by the county, city, city and county, or district levying such tax. 

            (4)  Whenever a lien created by a tax certificate has expired by reason of the provisions of this section, the treasurer shall immediately issue a certificate of cancellation describing the real estate included in the cer­tificate of purchase or tax certificate and giving the date of cancellation; and he shall also make proper entries in the book of sales in his office as follows:  "Cancelled by provision of section 39-11-148, C.R.S.", with the date of such entry.  He shall also present every such certificate of cancellation to the county clerk and recorder who shall enter the same in the record of land for which a tax lien was sold for delinquent taxes and endorse the date of entry on the certificate of cancellation and file the same, and such cer­tificate and the record thereof shall be prima facie evidence of the cancel­la­tion of the certificate of purchase or tax certificate and of the release of the lien of such certificate on the lands therein described.  Failure to record such certificate of cancellation shall not extend the lien created by the certificate of purchase or tax certificate.  The treasurer and county clerk and recorder shall not be entitled to any fees for the issuing of such certificate of cancellation nor for the entries in their books made under the provisions of this subsection (4). 

            (5)  Whenever a lien created pursuant to a tax certificate becomes unen­forceable pursuant to section 31-25-1119, C.R.S., the treasurer shall imme­diately issue a certificate of cancellation describing the real estate included in the certificate of purchase or tax certificate indicating thereon the date of cancellation and shall make the appropriate entries in the book of sales in his office, as follows:  "Cancelled by provision of sections 31-25-1119 and 39-11-148, C.R.S.", with the date of such entry.  He shall present every such certificate of cancellation to the county clerk and recorder who shall enter the same in the record of land for which a tax lien was sold for delinquent taxes and endorse the date of entry on the said certificate of cancellation and file the same, and such certificate and the record thereof shall be prima facie evidence of the cancellation of the certificate of pur­chase or tax certificate and of the release of the lien of such certificate on the lands therein described.  Failure to record such certificate of can­cellation shall not extend the lien created by the certificate of purchase or tax certificate.  The treasurer and county clerk and recorder shall not be entitled to any fees for the issuing and recording of such certificate of can­cellation nor for the entries in their books made under the provisions of this subsection (5).

39-11-149.  Sales en masse valid. 

            If two or more noncontiguous lots, tracts of land, or mining claims or portions thereof have not been separately valued and assessed or, having been separately valued and assessed, whether having a common ownership or not, have had tax liens thereof sold en masse for a gross sum for the nonpayment of taxes and charges thereon, then, after seven years from the date of any such sale, such assessment and sale and any tax sale certificate issued thereon shall be deemed valid and legal and shall be so considered in all actions, suits, or proceedings in which is involved the validity of any such assessment, sale, tax sale certificate, or treasurer's deed issued thereon.  There is excepted from this section any such action, suit, or proceeding pending on August 1, 1964, wherein any party thereto has or may assert the invalidity of any such assessment, sale, tax sale certi­fi­cate, or treasurer's deed.  Nothing in this section shall be construed to alter, amend, or repeal section 39-11-148. 

39-11-150.  Sales of tax liens on severed mineral interests. 

            Sales of tax liens for delinquent taxes due on severed mineral interests shall take place at the same place and time and under the same circumstances as in this article, but where the surface estate ownership is coterminous with the severed mineral interest, the owner of the surface estate shall have the right of first refusal to purchase the tax lien on the severed mineral interest, and the surface owner shall be allowed to pay all delinquent taxes due and owing for the severed mineral interest in lieu of the proceeds that would be collected from a tax sale of a tax lien on the severed mineral interest.  The treasurer shall notify the surface owner, by mail, at his last known address, of his right of refusal at least ten days prior to the sale of a tax lien on the severed mineral interest.  The surface owner shall have until two days prior to the sale to exercise the right of first refusal.  If the surface owner does not exercise his right of first refusal, the tax lien on such severed mineral interest shall be sold.  No action for the recovery of a severed mineral interest for which a tax deed was issued under the provisions of this article shall lie unless brought within the same time period as that limiting actions for the recovery of land pursuant to section 39-12-101. 

39-11-151.  County officials and employees may not acquire land by tax sale. 

            (1) (a) No property for which a tax lien is sold for delinquent taxes under this article shall be conveyed to an elected or appointed county official, to a county employee, or to a member of the immediate family of any such person, or to the agent of any such county official or employee, if the tax lien on such property is sold during the time the official or employee holds office or is employed. 

            (b)  No tax lien shall be sold to an elected or appointed county official, to a county employee, or to a member of the immediate family of such person or to the agent of any such county official or employee during the time the official or employee holds office or is employed.

            (2)  The purchase of any tax lien or the conveyance of any property by tax deed pursuant to this article is exempt from the provisions of this section under the following circumstances:

            (a)  If the property to be conveyed was owned by the county official or county employee, or by a member of the immediate family of any such person, immediately prior to the sale of a tax lien on such property for delinquent taxes;

            (b)  If such property is situated within a county other than the county to which such county official or employee is elected, appointed, or employed; or

            (c)  If the property to be conveyed is a severed mineral interest and, at the time of the conveyance, the county official or county employee is the owner of the surface estate which is coterminous with the severed mineral interest.

            (3) Any county official, county employee, or member of the immediate family of any such person, or the agent of any such county official or employee, who knowingly purchases any tax lien or receives a conveyance of property in violation of the provisions of this section commits a class 1 misdemeanor and shall be punished as provided in section 18-1.3-501, C.R.S.

39‑11‑152. Combined sale of delinquent tax liens and special assessment liens. 

            Whenever provision is made in this article for the sale of a tax lien on property, such sale shall include the sale of any lien for delinquent special assessments on such property which have been certified to the county treasurer for collection.  The separate sale of liens for delinquent general taxes and for delinquent special assessments on property is hereby prohibited.

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